You can find everything you wonder about cardiovascular diseases in our content, and you can clear the question marks in your mind!

What are Cardiovascular Diseases?

Like every organ, the heart also needs nourishment. The vessels that feed the heart are called “coronary arteries”. Diseases that may develop in the coronary vessels are life-threatening because they affect the work and efficiency of the heart. Therefore, cardiovascular diseases take the first place among all causes of death in the world.

So, what are the most common vascular diseases in general? :

  • Heart rhythm problems (arrhythmia)
  • Congenital heart problems
  • Heart valve disease
  • Heart muscle disease
  • Heart infections

Successful treatments for cardiovascular diseases are implemented in Turkey, and patients from different parts of the world visit Turkey every year for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The biggest factor in this is the outstanding achievements of health institutions in Turkey and Turkish Doctors who have accomplished successful studies in the field of cardiovascular surgery.

What Is Cardiovascular Diseases Called?

Cardiovascular diseases are called cardiovascular diseases for short. This is a general designation for the group that includes disorders of the heart or blood vessels (arteries and veins). Cardiovascular problems refer to any condition that affects the circulatory system.

What are the Symptoms of Cardiovascular Diseases?

Fat plaques or hardening of the arteries that accumulate in your arteries can damage your blood vessels and heart. The buildup of plaques can lead to narrowed or clogged blood vessels that cause problems such as heart attack, chest pain or stroke.

Coronary artery disease symptoms can be different for men and women. For example, men are more likely to have chest pain. In women, problems such as shortness of breath, nausea and extreme fatigue are more common.
Symptoms can generally include:

  • Pain in the chest
  • Chest compression
  • Feeling of pressure and discomfort in the chest (angina)
  • Shortness of breath
  • Pain in the neck and chest area
  • If the blood vessels are narrowed at any point in your body, there may be problems in the limbs of that area. For example; you may develop pain, numbness, weakness, or cold feeling in your legs or arms.
  • Coronary artery disease may not be diagnosed until you develop a heart attack, chest pressure, stroke, or heart failure. It is very important to know the symptoms of cardiovascular diseases and to consult your doctor in case of such doubt.

Heart Disease Symptoms Caused by Abnormal Heartbeats (Heart Arrhythmias)

Your heart may beat too fast, too slowly, or irregularly. Symptoms may include;

  • Feeling of palpitation in the chest
  • Fast beating heart (tachycardia)
  • Slow beating heart (bradycardia)
  • Chest pain or discomfort
  • Shortness of breath
  • Dizziness
  • Fainting (syncope) or a feeling of fainting

Symptoms of Congenital Cardiovascular Diseases

Less risky congenital heart defects may be detected later in childhood or adulthood. Symptoms of these types of congenital heart problems, which are generally not life-threatening, include:

  • Pale gray or bluish skin color (cyanosis)
  • Swelling in the legs, abdomen or areas around the eyes
  • In an infant, shortness of breath during feeding leads to insufficient weight gain.
  • Easily short of breath during exercise or activity
  • Easily fatigued during exercise or activity
  • Swelling in hands, ankles or feet

Heart Disease Symptoms Caused by Diseased Heart Muscle (Cardiomyopathy)

  • Shortness of breath during activity or rest
  • Swelling in hands and feet
  • Fatigue
  • Irregular heart rhythm that makes the heart beat fast or feels palpitating
  • Dizziness, lightheadedness and fainting

Heart Disease Symptoms Caused by Heart Infection

  • High fever
  • Shortness of breath
  • Weakness or extreme tiredness
  • Swelling in the leg or abdomen
  • Changes in your heart rhythm
  • Dry or persistent cough
  • Skin rashes or unusual spots

Heart Disease Symptoms Caused by Heart Valve Problems (Heart Valve Disease)

  • Extreme fatigue
  • Shortness of breath
  • Irregular heart rhythm
  • Swelling in the feet and wrists
  • Chest pain
  • Fainting (syncope)

What are the Causes of Cardiovascular Diseases?

The causes of heart disease vary according to the type of disease. There are many different types of heart disease. In general, we can list as follows;

1. Heart Attack Causes

A heart attack occurs when blood flow to part of the heart is interrupted by a blood clot. If this clot completely blocks blood flow, the part of the heart muscle where the flow is cut off begins to die.

2. Causes of Stroke

An ischemic stroke (the most common type of stroke) occurs when a blood clot blocks a blood vessel that feeds the brain. When blood flow to the brain is blocked, the involved brain cells die. This leads to the loss of functions controlled by the relevant part of the brain, such as walking or speaking.

3. Causes of Rhythm Disorder (Arrhythmia)

  • Coronary artery disease
  • Diabetes
  • Substance abuse
  • Excessive alcohol or caffeine consumption
  • Congenital heart problems
  • High blood pressure
  • Smoking
  • Some drugs (prescription, non-prescription)
  • Stress
  • Heart valve disorders

4. Causes of Heart Infection

  • Bacteria
  • Viruses
  • Parasites

5. Causes of Heart Valve Disease

Many things can cause heart valve disease. You may be born with valve problems or your valves may be damaged by the following problems;

  • Rheumatic fever
  • Some infections (infectious endocarditis)
  • Disorders in connective tissue

What are the Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases?

We can list the risk factors for the formation of heart disease as follows:


Aging increases the chance of damaged and narrowed arteries and weakened or thickened heart muscle.


Men generally have a higher risk of heart disease. After menopause, the risk increases in women.

Family History of Cardiovascular Disease:

Having a family history of heart disease increases the risk of coronary artery disease, especially if a parent experienced it at an early age.

To Smoke:

Nicotine causes constriction of blood vessels. In addition, carbon monoxide destroys the inner lining of the vessels, making them more susceptible to atherosclerosis.

Poor and Unbalanced Nutrition:

Maintaining a diet high in fat, salt, sugar and cholesterol can trigger the development of heart disease.


Uncontrolled and high blood pressure leads to hardening and thickening of the arteries. Thus, it can cause narrowing of the vessels through which blood flows.

High Cholesterol:

High cholesterol levels in your blood can increase the chances of plaque formation and atherosclerosis.


Diabetes increases the risk of heart disease. Diabetes has similar risk factors as obesity and high blood pressure.


Excess weight typically contributes to heart disease risk factors.


Lack of exercise and activity is associated with many heart diseases and a number of risk factors.


Constant stress can cause damage to your arteries. This, in turn, may accentuate other risk factors for heart disease.

What are the Treatment Methods for Cardiovascular Diseases?

We can examine the treatment methods of cardiovascular diseases under 4 different headings;

  • Changes in lifestyle
  • Medication treatments
  • Percutaneous coronary procedures (Stent applications)
  • Open heart operation (Bypass treatment)

According to the medical condition of the cardiovascular disease, the most appropriate treatment method is decided by the doctor together with the patient. Another very important point for heart patients is to stay away from situations that damage the heart vessels. However, activities beneficial to the cardiovascular system should be performed in daily life.

In Turkey, many useful methods are applied in the field of cardiovascular surgery and maximum success is achieved. As a result of the positive results obtained in cardiovascular surgery practices performed by Turkish doctors, Turkey is an important opportunity for treatment solutions for heart diseases.

What are the Treatment Methods for Cardiovascular Diseases?

It is the daily actions that individuals who have a high risk of developing cardiovascular disease or who develop cardiovascular disease should do first. While these actions prevent the occurrence of the disease, they also reduce the destruction of the disease in individuals who develop the disease. The most important point in this application is to take precautions before the disease occurs;

  • Quitting smoking
  • Doing regular physical exercise or sports
  • Eating healthy (avoiding fatty, sugary and acidic foods as much as possible)
  • Reducing and cutting salt consumption
  • Avoiding excessive weight gain
  • Reducing and cutting alcohol consumption


It is divided into two as drug treatments for the factors that cause cardiovascular disease and drug treatments for conditions that cause cardiovascular disease.

1. Drug Treatments for Factors Causing Cardiovascular Disease

  • Diabetes Disease and Drug Treatment: In diabetic patients, blood sugar level should be maintained with medication and diet practices and normal blood sugar level. In addition, this situation should be checked at certain time intervals.
  • High Blood Pressure and Medication: In individuals with high blood pressure, daily blood pressure values should be kept at normal levels. For this, blood pressure medications should be taken regularly. In addition, some lifestyle changes should be made.
  • High Cholesterol and Drug Treatment: Cholesterol values should be kept at normal levels in individuals with high cholesterol. For this, first of all, lifestyle changes and diet practices should be carried out. In cases where the cholesterol level in the blood does not fall to the desired level, drug treatment begins.

Depending on the patient’s medical condition, blood tests and cholesterol levels and the patient’s compliance with the medication are evaluated by physicians within 6 months to 1 year.

2. Drug Treatments for Conditions Developing Cardiovascular Disease

Lifestyle changes and drug therapy are applied as a whole;

  • Blood thinner
  • Cholesterol lowering
  • Blood pressure lowering
  • Heart rhythm regulator
  • Vascular dilator
  • Chest pain relief
  • Cardiovascular protective drugs are determined and adjusted by physicians according to the condition of the disease.

Percutaneous Coronary Procedures (Stent Applications)

Percutaneous coronary procedure is the process of treating the heart vessel with a special sheath placed on the inguinal arteries or arm arteries and catheters, wires, balloons and stents transmitted through it to the heart vessel. There are two types of these stents, medicated and non-medicated. Medicated stents are more resistant to re-narrowing of the vessel because they contain special substances.

Open Heart Operation (Bypass Treatment)

Coronary artery bypass treatment allows the heart to be fed again by providing blood flow with another vessel instead of the clogged or narrowed heart vessel. If the number of clogged veins is more than one, bypass procedure is applied as much as the occluded vein.
The vein or grafts to be used in the bypass process are taken from the chest, arm and leg regions.

They are then connected to the clogged heart vessels. The mammary artery in the chest wall, the artery in the arm and the vein in the leg are the most commonly used grafts.

Related Doctors

Get Directions

Find Us On Map

Emergency Service?​


Contact Us​

Send us an email​

× How can I help you?